“For through Him we both have access by one Spirit unto the Father.”

Literally:  “for through Him we both have access by one Spirit to the Father”– Jew and Gentile alike are on the same footing as sinners at the foot of the cross. 

“For through Him”
Literally:  “for through Him”–Through Christ Jesus, we both–Jews and Gentile–have access by one Spirit-through the influence of the Holy Ghost, unto the Father-God Almighty.

         This text is a plain proof of the holy Trinity, or rather, Tri-Unity.  Through Christ Jesus, we both-Jews and Gentiles alike, have access by one Spirit-through the influence of the Holy Ghost, unto the Father-God Almighty.  This text is a plain proof of the holy Trinity.  Jews and Gentiles are to be presented unto God the FATHER; the SPIRIT of God works in their hearts, and prepares them for this presentation; and JESUS CHRIST Himself introduces them.  No soul can have access to God but by Jesus Christ, and he intro- duces none but such as receive His Holy Spirit.  All who receive that Spirit are equally dear to Him; and, whatever their names be among men, they are known in heaven as children of God, and heirs of eternal glory.               

         “we both have access”
         Literally:  “we both have the access”

They both have equal access to God, which is a glorious privilege for any human being.  Paul makes it clear in Romans 5 that Justification by Faith is a benefit available to all.  The Trinity is displayed here.  The oneness of “the Spirit,” through which we both have our access, is necessarily followed by oneness of the body, the Church (v. 16).

                 WE BOTH:  (hoi amphoteroi)–Literally:  “We the both” (Jew and Gentile alike).

                 ACCESS:   (ten prosagôgên)–Literally:  “the access.”

“Now therefore ye are no more strangers and foreigners, but fellow citizens with the saints,, and of the household of God;”

In this verse the Church is compared to a city, which, has a variety of privileges, rights, etc., founded on regular charters and grants.       

         “Now therefore ye are no more strangers and foreigners”
         Literally:  “So, then, you are no longer strangers and tenants”–Paul reminds the Gentile believers that though they once were strangers and alienated from God, they are no longer strangers and sojourners (foreigners).  They are now fellow citizens with the saints.  Dwellers just outside the house or family of God.

        NOW THEREFORE:  (ara oun)-Literally:  “Then therefore; accordingly therefore.” Paul now turns direct to the Gentile believers, and recounts to them the actual grandeur of their privileges in grace.

        NO MORE:  (ouketi)–No longer.  You are now reckoned with the people of God. You are entitled to their privileges, and are not to be regarded as outcasts and aliens. The meaning is, that they belonged to the same community – the same family – as the people of God.

        STRANGERS:  (xenoi)The Gentile believers, when they formerly came to Jerusalem, were treated as “strangers.”  In every Greek city there were xenoi,  and they did not lead an easy life. They had no rights  nor could they  as mere heathens, settle among them.  Now, having believed in Christ, they are all incorporated with the believing Jews in this holy city. 

        FOREIGNERS:  (paroikoi)–Literally:  “sojourners”–Without rights of citizenship; persons who have no property in the land, and may only rent a house for the time being.  The paroikos was considered a step above the xenoi. 

         Sojourners–as is opposed to “members of the household,” as “strangers” is to “fellow citizens.” These paroikoi were resident aliens; people who had taken up residence in a place but who had never become naturalized citizens.  Such people paid taxes for the privilege of existing in a land which was not their own.  However, both the xenos and the paroikos were always on the fringe.
         Before if any of the Gentile believers, convinced of the errors of the Gentiles, acknowledged the God of Israel, but did not receive circumcision, he might dwell in the land, but he had no right to the blessings of the covenant; such might be called (paroikoi).”   

         “fellow citizens with the saints”
         Literally:  “but {you are} fellow citizens of the saints”–“Saints” is not a reference to the O.T. saints.  Gentile believers are fellow citizens with the N.T. saints.  They are now fellow citizens with the NT Jewish saints, the other members of the Body of Christ.

        FELLOW CITIZENS:  (sunpolitai)-Used only here in the N.T.  Members now of the politeia (commenwealth) of Israel (v. 12).  The opposite of being “strangers” (xenoi) or “foreigners” (paroikoi)

Called to the enjoyment of equal privileges with the Jews themselves, who, by profession, were a holy people; who were bound to be holy, and therefore are often called saints, or holy persons, when both their hearts and conduct were far from being right in the sight of God.  But the saints spoken of here are the converted or Christianized Jews.

        SAINTS:  (hagiois)–Literally:  “holy ones.”  All Christians were called “saints” in the early church.

By the term “saints” (hagiois) we are to understand that Paul is writing to those who in that place professed Christianity, and were members of the Christian Church.  Saint properly signifies a holy person, and such the Gospel of Christ requires every man to be, and such every true believer is, both in heart and life; however, “saint” appears to have been as ordinary a denomination of believers in Christ in those primitive times, as the term “Christian” is now.

         “and of the household of God”
         Literally:  “and {of the} family of God.” They belong to the household, not as servants, but as relatives, as members of the family of God.  Of the same family. Entitled to the same privileges, and regarded by God as His children;

This is a new relationship, one foreign to the O.T.  Even David, the man after God’s own heart, is called, “My servant David” (II Samuel 7:8) and God’s term for Moses was “My servant” (Num. 12:7).

        HOUSEHOLD:  (oikeioi)The house of God was the Temple.   This temple was a type of the Christian Church, which has now become God's House.  All true believers are considered as being domestics (oikeioi), of this House and household

         All the children and servants of God Almighty have equal rights, privileges, and advantages; as all, through one Spirit, by the sacred head of the family, had equal access to God, and each might receive as much grace and as much glory as his soul could possibly contain.  Jews and Gentiles; men of whatever race or color or class, are together part of this household of God; of the same family!
         Paul is saying to these Gentile Ephesian believers:  “You are no longer among God’s people on sufferance.  You are now full members of the family of God.”  To put it simply:  it is through Jesus (and only through Him) that we are home with God.  Through Christ there is a place for everyone in this family of God.  People and churches may put up certain barriers, but God NEVER does.  It is sad that the Church is often more exclusive than God is.  UNDERSTAND:  The most sacred spot on earth is not some towering cathedral with stained glass windows; rather, it is the heart of the believer where God has come to dwell.  This building is not yet complete, but it will be someday soon; and then all creation will view its splendor and give praise and glory to its Creator and Designer.

“For this cause I bow my knees unto the Father of our Lord Jesus Christ”
“Of whom the whole family in heaven and earth is named”
(Eph. 3:14-15).

Contrast the position of the Gentiles with their new position now as believers now:  in their new position, they can now enter into the very throne room of God–into the very Holy of Holies itself: 

        “Having therefore, brethren, boldness to enter into the Holiest by the blood of Jesus”
        “By a new and living way, which He hath consecrated for us, through the veil, that is to say, His flesh”

        “And [havintg] an High Priest over the house of God;
        “Let us draw near with a true heart in full assurance of faith, having our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience, and our bodies washed with pure water”
        “Let us hold fast the profession of [our] faith without wavering; (for He [is] faithful that promised;” (Heb. 10:19-23).

“And are built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets, Jesus Christ Himself being the Chief corner stone;”

         “built upon the foundation of the apostles and prophets”
Literally:  “being built up on the foundation of the apostles and prophets”–This is important. 

         It does not mean that the apostles were the foundation, but that they personally laid the foundation.  What the early church was built on and its doctrine was that of the Apostles. The foundation laid by the apostles; i.e., the doctrine preached by them, the corner-stone of which is Jesus Christ. The fact, that in describing the foundation of the church, Paul, under the guidance of the Holy Ghost, says nothing of Peter, but teaches that it is built on Christ, as preached by apostles and prophets, is conclusive evidence that the belief of its being built on Peter, or any mere creature, is an error.
         In Matt. 16:18 Jesus is doing another one of His play on words (puns) in the Greek language.  There has been much misunderstanding, and erroneous doctrines made about this verse.  Jesus is really making a contrasting play on two similar, but different, Greek words.  He says to Peter, “…thou art Peter (Petros) (a small stone; a pebble; a piece of the main Rock).    “upon this Rock (Petra) (solid rock; stone) (here the KJV has made a grave error in not capitalizing this word, “Rock”), I will build (still in the future at that time) My Church…”
         In Classical Greek, the word petros means, “a piece of a rock” as used in Homer’s Iliad, of Ajax throwing a stone (petros) at Hector (Iliad, vii. 270), or of Patroclus grasping and hiding in his hand “jagged stone”  (Iliad, xvi, 734).
         But in contrast, the Greek word petra is used of a ledge of rocks or rocky peak.  In Odyssey, ix, 243, Homer uses petra to describe the huge rock that Polyphemus places at the door of his cavern, which is a mass which 22 wagons could no remove.  Jesus is using this word to describe Himself, Who is the true stone  (Chief Cornerstone) upon which the Church is built.  The prophet Daniel describes this “stone” (Petra) Daniel 2:34 as being “cut out without hands”  and in 2:35 as, “the Stone that smote the image” and “became a great mountain and filled the whole earth.”

“Jesus Christ Himself being the Chief Cornerstone”
Literally:  “Jesus Christ Himself being {the} cornerstone”–This clearly shows that Christ is the Rock on which the church is built.  Paul makes this clear in I Cor. 3:11—“For other foundation can no man lay than that is laid, which is Jesus Christ.”

        CHIEF CORNERSTONE:  (akrogôniaiou)–Paul now emphasizes that after having for foundation-the ground plan, specification, and principle on which it was built, the doctrine taught by the prophets in the Old Testament, and the apostles in the New. Jesus Christ being that corner stone, the chief angle or foundation corner stone, the connecting medium by which both Jews and Gentiles were united in the same building.

         Now Paul, following the same metaphor, comparing the Church of Christ to a city, or a building, the believing Ephesians are now represented as parts of that building; the living stones out of which it is principally formed, (I Pet. 2:4-5). 
         Elsewhere Jesus Christ is termed the Foundation Stone–Behold I lay in Zion a Foundation Stone, a tried Stone, a precious Corner Stone,” (Isa. 28:16); but the meaning is the same in all the places where these terms, foundation and corner stone, occur; for in laying the foundation of a building, a large stone is generally placed at one of the angles or corners, which serves to form a part of the two walls which meet in that angle.  Therefore, when Paul says that Jesus Christ is the Chief Cornerstone, (akrogôniaiou) it means such a foundation stone as that mentioned above.     

“In Whom all the building fitly framed together groweth unto a holy temple unto the Lord.”

“In Whom all the building fitly framed together”
Literally:  “In Whom all the building being fitted together”–Not fitting together in Peter or Paul, but in Christ; in whom all true Christians believe, and on whom they rely for salvation.

        FITLY FRAMED TOGETHER: (sunarmologoumenê)–Paul is using an architectural metaphor;  however, since Paul is using the present participle tense, he is pointing out denoting that the framing is still in progress.

By which foundation corner stone, Christ Jesus, all the building, composed of converted Jews and Gentiles, fitly framed together, (jointed and connected together. The analogy to the temple of the O.T. is obvious; yet there is a contrast revealed in the analogy.  Paul means each individual believer is fitted into the total structure.  Peter expressed it in the same way in I Pet. 2:5 when he wrote that we are stones fitted in and built into a spiritual house.

         “groweth into an holy temple in the Lord”
        Literally:  “grows into a holy temple in {the} Lord”-Grows unto a holy temple-is continually increasing, as new converts from Judaism or heathenism flock into it.  It is not yet a finished building, but will continue to increase, and be more and more perfect, till the time of the Translation (Rapture) of the Church–the harpazo.

This points out that the growing is still unfinished.  The living, born-again, stones are growing into a living temple (see I Cor. 12:13).  It is called “an holy temple” or holy sanctuary.  It is holy because the Holy Spirit indwells it.  By the baptism of the Holy Spirit the saved sinner is placed “in the Lord.”

“In whom you are also builded together for a habitation of God through the Spirit.”

         “In whom you are also builded together”
         Literally:  “in Whom you also are being built”– In Christ, or on Christ, as the solid and precious foundation. You also are built together. You are built into that, or constitute a part of it. You are not merely added to it, but you constitute a part of the building.

         “for an habitation of God through the Spirit”
         Literally:  “into a dwelling place of God {the} Spirit”

         God dwells in the hearts of His people who are united to him through faith and love, and thus each believer is His temple (Isa. 57:15; John 14:23; 17:21 ,23, 26).   For the indwelling, or the dwelling-place, of God. Formerly He dwelt in the temple; now He dwells in the church, and in the hearts of His people.

        “Know ye not that ye are the temple of God, and {that} the Spirit of God dwelleth in you?
        “If any man defile the temple of God, him shall God destroy; for the temple of God is holy which
{temple} ye are” (I Cor. 3:16-17).

        “What?  Know ye not that your body is the temple of the Holy Ghost {which is} in you, which ye have of God, and ye are not your own?
        “For ye are bought with a price:  therefore glorify God in your body, and in your spirit, which are God’s” (I Cor. 6:19–20).

        “And what agreement hath the temple of God with idols?  For ye are the temple of the living God; as God hath said, ‘I will dwell in them, and walk in {them} and I will be their God, and they shall be My people.
        “Wherefore, come out from among them, and be ye separate saith the Lord, and touch not the unclean {thing}; and I will receive you’” (II Cor. 6:16-17).

         God dwells in His church, which is made up of believers united to Him and to each other, and thus the church is, as here, His temple  (compare I Cor. 3:16; I Pet. 2:5). The church of God is not composed merely of ministers of the gospel, but of all who are united by faith to Jesus Christ, and in whom He dwells by his Spirit.
         The Church, the Body of Christ, is “an habitation” a permanent temple, of God in the Spirit.  The purpose of the church as a temple is to reveal the presence and glory of God on earth.  When believers assemble together in a church, the impression should be made upon the world, even in this Age, that God is in His holy temple.  The world should feel that God can be found in a church service.  CAN HE?  Perhaps more people would be attracted to the church if they were sure that God was present.

        As we have only one GOD, and only one Savior and Mediator between God and man, and only one inspiring Spirit; so there is but one Church, in which this indescribable God performs His work of salvation.  That Church, however scattered and divided throughout the world, is but one building, founded on the Old and New Testaments; having but one sacrifice, the Lord Jesus, the Lamb of God that takes away the sin of the world.

         Of this glorious Church every Christian soul is an epitome; for as God dwells in the Church at large, so He dwells in every believer in particular.  Each believer is a habitation of God through the Spirit.  In vain are all pretensions among sects and parties to the privileges of the Church of Christ, if they have not the doctrine and life of Christ.  Traditions and legends are not apostolic doctrines, and showy ceremonies are not the life of God in the soul of man.
         It is the place in which God does His marvelous works; the theatre of His justice, mercy, goodness, and truth; where He is to be sought, where He is to be found, and in which alone He is to be retained.

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