“And again he saith, ‘Rejoice, ye Gentiles, with His people.’”

“And again he saith,”
Literally:  “And again He says”–In Deut. 32:43.  In this place, the nations or Gentiles are called on to rejoice with tile Jews, for the positioning of God in their behalf.  The reason for the quotation is to show that the O.T. speaks of the Gentiles as called on to celebrate the praises of God.  Paul infers that they are to be introduced to the same privileges as His people.                  

“rejoice, ye Gentiles, with His people.”
Literally:  “Rejoice, nations, with His people.”  When Moses calls upon the nations to rejoice with God's people, it show that they are to be admitted to a share of their privileges.             

          REJOICE:  (Grk.–euphrainô)-Literally:  “to cheer; to gladden the mind.”  This is found in Deut. 32:43, and is a direct command to Gentiles to worship with the Lord's  people.

“And again, Praise the Lord, all ye Gentiles; and laud Him, all ye people.”
From Psalm 117:1, with slight variations from the LXX text.

“And again”– namely, in another passage containing the same thing (comp. I Corinthians 3:20; Matthew 4:7; 5:33.

“Praise the Lord all ye Gentiles”
Literally:  “Praise the Lord all the nations.”

 GENTILES:  (Grk.–ethne)–Literally:  “nations.”  This is the root word from which we get out English word, “ethnic.”

 The call upon the Gentiles to praise God implies their reception to the blessings of God's covenant in Christ. This command to the Gentiles, still clearer and stronger, is found in Psa. 97:1.  Paul is accumulating quotations to show that it was the common language of the O.T. and that he was not depending on a single expression for the truth of his doctrine.

“and laud him, all ye people”
Literally:  “And praise Him all the peoples.”

PEOPLES:  (Grk.–laoi)–The various nations outside the pale of Judaism. And laud him; praise Him.  The psalm is directly in point. It is a call on all nations to praise God; the very point in the discussion of Paul’s. This Greek word is the plural form of the word “laos” that is the root word from which we get our English word, “laity.”

“And again Esaias saith, There shall be a root of Jesse, and He that shall rise to reign over the Gentiles, in Him shall the Gentiles trust.”

Paul again quotes from the LXX version of Isaiah 11:10, but he does omit the words, “and in that day.”

“And again Esaias (Isaiah) saith.”
Literally:  “And again Isaiah says.”  From Isaiah 11:10, with slight variations from the LXX text. The object in this quotation is the same as before.  Paul is accumulating quotations to show that it was the common language of the O.T. and that he was not depending on a single expression for the truth of his doctrine. The call upon the Gentiles to praise God implies their reception to the blessings of God's covenant in Christ.

“There shall be a root of Jesse”
Literally:  “The root of Jesse shall be.”  (Isa. 11:10)–A descendant of
Jesse’s, or one that should proceed from him when he was dead.

When a tree dies, and falls, there may remain a root which shall retain life, and which shall send up a sprout of a similar kind. So Job says, (Job 14:7,) “For there is hope of a tree, if it be cut down, that it will sprout again, and that the tender branch thereof will not cease.”  So it is in relation to Jesse. Though he should fall, like an aged tree, yet his name and family should not be extinct. There should be a descendant who should rise, and reign over the Gentiles. The Lord Jesus is thus called the “root and the offspring of David,” (Rev. 22:16; 5:5).

          ROOT OF JESSE:  (Grk.–rhiza tou Iessai)–Jesse was the father of David (I Sam. 17:58). The Messiah was thus descended front Jesse. The “root of Jesse” is Christ. meaning, not “He from whom Jesse sprang,” but “He that is sprung from Jesse” (that is, Jesse's son David)–see Rev. 22:16.

“He that shall rise”
Literally:  “And the {One} rising up.”  So the
LXX rendering is in substantial agreement, though not verbal agreement with the original.  That is, as a sprout springs up from a decayed or fallen tree, Jesus thus rose from the family of David, that had fallen into poverty and humble life in the time of Mary. 

“to reign over the Gentiles”
Literally:  “To rule the nations.”  This also is a quotation from the LXX (Septuagint) of Isa. 11:10.

The Hebrew is, “Which shall stand up for an ensign of the people;” that is, a standard to which they shall flock. Either the LXX (Septuagint) or the Hebrew would express the idea of Paul’s.  The substantial sense is retained, though it is not literally quoted. The idea of Christ reigning over the Gentiles is one that is fully expressed in the second psalm.  This is looking forward to the Millennial Kingdom.

“In Him shall the Gentiles trust”
Literally: “On Him {the} nation  will hope.”  Literally in the Hebrew: “To it shall the Gentiles hope.”

          TRUST: (Grk.–elipzô)–Literally meaning, “to hope.”  Rendering this word as “trust” is obviously a mistranslation. The actual Greek word for “trust” is (pisteuô), which  means, “to believe in, to have faith in” (as in John 3:16).

The purpose of this quotation is the same as the preceding; that is, to show that it was predicted in the O.T. that the Gentiles should be made partakers of the privileges of the Gospel. The argument of Paul is that if this was designed, then converts to Christianity from among the Jews should lay aside their prejudices, and receive the Jewish Christians as their brethren, entitled to the same privileges of the Gospel as themselves. The fact that the Gentiles would be admitted to these privileges Paul had already more fully discussed in chapters 10 and 11.

“Now the God of hope fill you with all joy and peace in believing, that ye may abound in hope, through the power of the Holy Ghost.”

“Now the God of hope
Literally:  “The God of this hope.”– The
God Who inspires, or produces the Christian hope; Paul is taking up the idea of verse v.12; 

           The God Who caused both Jews and Gentiles to hope that the gracious promises which He made to them should be fulfilled; and Who, accordingly, has fulfilled them n the most punctual and circumstantial manner. The Author of the hope in Christ which the prophets foretold.  Sometimes Paul styles Him the God of peace, sometimes the God of patience; here the God of hope; He the only object of our common hope, and also effectively, as He is the Author and Producer of hope in us.
          Habitual trust in God for all needed good is the great means of increasing joy, peace, hope, and all the graces of the Spirit in the hearts of believers; and also of leading them to abound in every good word and work.

“fill you with all joy and peace”– If they were filled with this, there would be no strife and contention (14:17).
Give you true spiritual happiness; peace in your own hearts, and unity among yourselves; in believing not only the promises which He has given you, but believing in Christ Jesus, in whom all the promises are yea and amen.

Paul has quoted from Isaiah, “In him shall the Gentiles trust” (v. 12), and follows it by a prayer that the God who has given them the blessed hope may fill them with joy and peace, so that they may abound in hope. The hope we have in Christ is the source of a great part of our joy.

“in believing”
Literally:  in “in the believing;”
in the sphere of the act of habitually believing.  The effect of believing is to produce this joy and peace. The native truth of that faith which is the great theme of this epistle (compare Gal. 5:22).

“that ye may abound in hope”
Literally:  “For you to abound in hope.”That you may be excited to take more enlarged views of the salvation which God has provided for you, and have all your expectations fulfilled by the power of the Holy Spirit, enabling you to hope and believe; and then sealing the fulfillment of the promises upon your hearts.  That your hope may be steadfast and strong.  That your hope may be steadfast and strong.

           ABOUND:  (Grk.–perisseuô)–Literally:  to exceed a fixed number or measure to be over, to exist in abundance, to be in affluence”  In hope, through the power of the Holy Spirit, where by hope understand the good hoped for, namely, heaven and eternal life.

“through the power of the Holy Ghost.”
Literally:  “In {the} power of {the} Holy Spirit.”–By means of the powerful operation of the Holy Spirit. It is by his power alone that the Christian has the hope of eternal life (see 8:24; Eph 1:13,14).  This is affirm expectation of which is wrought in us by the
Holy Spirit.

GHOST:  (Grk.–pneuma)–Obsolete English for “spirit.”

“And I myself also am persuaded of you, my brethren, that ye also are full of goodness, filled with all knowledge, able also to admonish one another.”

From this point onwards Paul gives a personal turn to his letter. The greetings at the end are introduced by a few words of explanation as to the way in which the more general exhortations that preceded are to be received by the Roman Christians, and a somewhat longer statement on his own relations to the Church at Rome.

“And I myself am persuaded”
Literally:  “But I am persuaded.”– He had never seen them, (1:10-13), but he had full      confidence in them. This confidence he had expressed more fully in the first chapter.

         AND I MYSELF:  (Grk.–kai autos)—-Literally:even myself See 7:25 for a like emphasis on himself, here in contrast with “ye yourselves”–The argument of    the Epistle has been completed both in the main line (vv. 1-8) and the further applications (9:1; 15:13).

Paul here proceeds to show them why he had written this epistle, and to state his confidence in them. He had exhorted them to peace, and he had opposed some of their strongest prejudices; and in order to secure their obedience to his injunctions, he now shows them the deep interest which he had in their welfare, though he had never seen them.

AM PERSUADED: (Grk.–pepeismaI)–Paul had never seen them, (1:10-13,) but he had full confidence in them. I have full confidence in you.

This confidence he had expressed more fully in the first chapter. This is supposed to be an address to the Gentiles; and it is managed with great delicacy. Paul even seems to be apologizing for the freedom he had used in writing to them; which he gives them to understand proceeded from the authority he had received by his apostolic office, the exercise of which office respected them particularly.  So they could not be offended when they found themselves so particularly distinguished.

“of you my brethren”
Literally: “but my brethren”–Concerning you. I have full confidence in you. An address of affection; showing that he had not intended to assume undue authority, or to lord it over their faith.

“that ye also are full of goodness”
Literally:  “That you yourselves are full of goodness.” Paul was confident that those to whom he wrote felt kindly towards one another, and would be disposed to follow, so far as they should understand it, the will of God. Filled with all knowledge; so well acquainted with the doctrines and duties of religion, especially with regard to the subject in question, that they would be able also to admonish; or enlighten and benefit others.

Filled with kindness or benevolence. That is, they were inclined to obey any just commands; and that consequently any errors in their opinions and conduct had not been the effect of obstinacy or perverseness. There was indeed danger, in the city of Rome, of pride and haughtiness; and among the Gentile converts there might have been some reluctance to receive instruction from a foreign Jew. But Paul was persuaded that all this was overcome by the mild and humbling spirit of faith, and that they were inclined to obey any just commands. He made this observation, therefore, to conciliate respect to his authority as an apostle.

           GOODNESS: (Grk.–agathosunes)—They were so full of goodness and love that they intended to follow any plan that might be devised, in order to bring about the most perfect understanding between them and their Jewish brethren. 

Instead of the Greek word, (agathosunes)—goodness”, some MSS. of good repute have the Greek word, (agapes), or “love.”  In this connection both words seem to mean nearly the same thing. They were so full of goodness and love that they were disposed, of themselves, to follow any plan that might be devised, in order to bring about the most perfect understanding between them and their Jewish brethren.

“Filled with all knowledge”– That is, fully instructed in the doctrines and duties of the Christian faith.  This was true; but there might be still some comparatively unimportant and non-essential points, on which they might not be entirely clear. On these Paul had written; and written, not professedly to communicate new ideas, but to remind them of the great principles on which they were before instructed, (v.15).

“able also to admonish one another.”
“Also to warn one another.”
Therefore having less need of the admonition of Paul.  That is, you are so fully instructed in Christian principles, as to be able to give advice and counsel, if it is needed. From this verse we may learn:

1.      That when it is our duty to give instruction, admonition, or advice, it should be in a kind: conciliating manner; not with harshness, or with the severity of authority. Even an apostle did not assume harshness or severity in his instructions.
2.       That there is no impropriety in speaking of the good qualities of Christians in thepresence; or even of commending and praising them when they deserve it.
3.       When he could commend, Paul preferred it; and never hesitated to give them credit to the utmost extent to which it could be rendered.

            However, he did not flatter, but he told the truth; he did not commend to excite pride and vanity, but to encourage, and to prompt to still more active efforts. The minister who always censures and condemns, whose ministry is made up of complaints and lamentations, who never speaks of Christians but in a strain of fault-finding, is unlike the example of the Savior and of Paul, and may expect little success in his work. (Comp. 1:8; 16:19; I Cor. 1:6; II Cor. 8:7; 9:2; Phil. 1:8-7; Heb. 6:9; II Pet. 1:12).
            Paul is now about to conclude his epistle to the church at Rome, and he excuses himself that he had written so largely and with such freedom to them, believing that they abounded in grace and knowledge, and were very fit and able to instruct and direct one another; however, he thought fit to write unto them, having had the honor conferred upon him by
Christ to be called to the apostolic office, and particularly to be the ambassador of Christ to the Gentiles.