“Now unto God and our Father {be} glory for ever and ever.  Amen.”

“Now unto God and our Father”
Literally:  “Now to our God and Father.”  God is our Father in Christ Jesus; and has such pity as a father hath for His children, such has the Lord for them that fear Him; as a father is concerned for the support and life of His children, so is God concerned for you.

         A father may be poor, and unable to help his most beloved children; God, your Father, is infinite in His riches of His grace and glory, and out of His abundance we have all received, and grace for grace. Therefore, to God our Father, be glory for ever and ever!
       In the construction of the Greek language of this verse, the words “God,” (Grk.–Theō), and “Father,” (Grk.–Patri), follow one article, “the,” (tōi); therefore, according to the rules of Greek grammar, both of these words refer to the same Person:  i.e.,  “the God; the Father.” 

“glory for ever and ever;”
Literally:  “Glory to the ages of the ages.” Not to us, but to Him be “the glory” alike of your gift, and of His gracious recompense to you.

“Salute every saint in Christ Jesus.  The brethren which are with me greet you.”

“Salute every saint in Christ Jesus.”
Literally:  “Greet every saint in Christ Jesus.” Remember to present my affectionate wishes to every Christian at Philippi.

It was usual for Paul to close his epistles with affectionate salutations to various members of the churches to which he wrote. These salutations are generally specific, and mention the names, particularly if prominent members of the churches. See the close of the epistles to the Romans; I Corinthians; Colossians; and II Timothy. In this epistle, however, as in some others, the salutation is general. Why none are specified in particular is not certainly known.

        SAINT:  (Grk.–hagion)—The word, “saint,” has a meaning today that is different from what is was in Paul’s day.  The pagan world used the word in Paul’s time to refer to a person set apart to the gods, but Paul was using it to refer to one set apart to the true God. 

By “every saint,” Paul means every individual saint, as indicated by the singular number, in contrast to “all the saints,” a collective term used in v. 22.  The words that are commonly translated, “sanctify” and “holy,”  come from Greek works related to this one for “saint.”  The person who recognizes that Christ has died to pay the penalty for his sin and who trusts Christ as his personal Savior from the condemnation of sin qualifies as a saint in the N.T. sense of the term for “saint.”

“The brethren which are with me greet you.”
Literally:  “The brothers with me greet you.”–Those who were fellow laborers with him, generally supposed to be Aristarchus, Mark, Justus, Epaphras, Luke, and Demas.

        BRETHREN:  (Grk.–adelphoi)—The word “brethren” here probably refers to ministers that were with Paul, as the “saints” in general are mentioned in the next verse. It is possible that at Rome the ministers were known by the general name of the brethren.

“All the saints salute you, chiefly they that are of Caesar’s household.

 “All the saints salute you,”
Literally:  “all the saints greet you”–All the beleivers there in Rome, where this epistle was written.

       No individuals are specified, perhaps because none of the Christians at Rome were personally known to the church at Philippi. They would, however, feel a deep interest in a church which had thus the confidence and affection of Paul. There is reason to believe that the bonds of affection among the churches then were much stronger than they are now. There was a generous warmth in the newness of the Christian affections the first ardor of love; and the common trials to which they were exposed would serve to bind them closely together.
       Having referred to the “brethren which are with me,” (v. 21), Paul enlarged the scope to include, “all the saints.”  Apparently any believer who came into contact with Paul wanted to be remembered to the believers in Philippi. 

“chiefly they that are of Caesar’s household.”
Literally:  “Most of all those of Caesar’s house.”–Nero was at this time emperor of Rome: a more worthless, cruel, and diabolic wretch never disgraced the name or form of man; yet in his family there were Christians.

         However, whether this relates to the members of the imperial family, or to guards, or courtiers, or to servants, we have no way of being sure. If even some of Nero’s slaves were converted to Christianity, it would be sufficiently marvelous. Converts to Christianity in this imperial family there certainly were; and this shows how powerfully the Divine word had been preached and spread.
        That the Empress Poppaea may have been favorably inclined to Christianity is possible; for Josephus relates of her, Antiq., lib. xx. cap. 7: “She was a worshipper of the true God;” therefore, it is not likely that she threw any hindrances in the way of her servants who might wish to embrace the Christian faith. J

        Jerome, in Philemon, states that Paul had converted many in Caesar's family; “A Caesare missus in carcerem, notior familiae ejus factus, persecutoris Christi domum fecit ecclesiam.” That is, of Nero, who was at that time the reigning emperor. The name Cæsar was given to all the emperors after the time of Julius Cæsar, as the name Pharaoh was the common name of the kings of Egypt. The phrase here used “the household of Cæsar,” may refer to the relatives of the emperor; or even to Nero’s slaves, for they would be numbered among the household of Caesar, and it is certainly possible that some of them may have been converted to Christianity.

        HOUSEHOLD OF CAESAR:   (Grk.–hoi ek Kaisaros oikos)–This may refer to those working in Caesar’s household, whether slaves or freemen; and the implication is that Paul had won many of them to Jesus Christ.  Here, without comment, is shown one of the reasons why Paul was rejoicing in his circumstances, however difficult.  It actually gave Paul access to the inner circle of Rome; to those who were at the very heart of the military and political life of the city, and even of the empire itself.  It was a pulpit to which he could not have achieved if he had sought it, but by which circumstances he was given entrance to those who could be an important channel to others in communicating the gospel message. 

Even if Paul had wanted to make inroads close to the emperor, he probably would never have been allowed to contact anyone connected with the imperial establishment; but now, in the outworking of the sovereignty of God, circumstances had brought Paul to the very center of the great Roman Empire where he won converts for Christ among those associated with the Emperor.  What better testimony of the sovereignty of God can be given?  God rules and over rules in the affairs of man!  From these important contacts for Christ, the gospel would be spread throughout the Roman Empire as those of Caesar’s household shared their faith with those who had business in the Roman capital.

“The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ {be} with you all.”–This is the usual apostolic benediction, which has often occurred, and been more than once explained.

        OUR:  (Grk.–hēmōn), is omitted by many MSS. and several versions, which simply read, “The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ.”

          GRACE:  (Grk.–charis)–This was more than just a salutation (1:2) or a close of a letter.  This one word reminded Paul that he was really deserving of eternal condemnation but that God had sent His only begotten Son to pay the penalty for his sin. 

         This marvelous grace of God motivated Paul to do all he did in taking the gospel to a confused, Christ-hating world.  Paul’s service of love had brought him much suffering, but God had worked through him to accomplish many victories, such as the salvation of the Philippians, and those of Caesar’s household.  That same grace of God is available to each person today; and like Paul, anyone who places his trust in Christ as his personal Savior from sin receives forgiveness of sin and eternal life.  Salvation involves a transfer of trust:  from oneself and what he can do for Jesus Christ and what Jesus has done for him.
         Now we come to the important question: 
"Have you trusted Christ as your own personal Savior? If not, please do so before it is eternally too late.  Then you too will be able to apply Paul’s words to yourself:  “The grace of our Lord Jesus Christ be with you all.  Amen.”