“Who art thou that judgest another man’s servant?  To his own master he standeth or falleth. Yea, he shall be holden up:  for God is able to make him stand.”

Paul indignantly challenges the weaker believers right to judge another believer. That right belongs to another tribunal, before which the conduct of the stronger Christian will not be condemned but approved and upheld.   

    “There is therefore now no condemnation to them which are in Christ Jesus, who walk not after the flesh, but after the Spirit” (Rom. 8:1).
   “Who shall lay anything to the charge of God’s elect?  {It is} God that justifieth?’
    “Who {is} he that condemneth?  {It is} Christ that died, yea rather, that is risen again, Who is even at the right hand of God, who also maketh intercession for us”  (Rom. 8:33-34).

“Who art thou that judgest another man’s servant?”
Literally:  “Who are you judging another another’s servant?”–Since God has received him, he is God's servant, and his accountability is not to you, but to God,

That is, “who gave you this right to sit in judgment on another believer?”  There is reference here particularly to the Jew, who on account of his ancient privileges, and because he had the law of God, would assume the right of judging in the case, and insist on conformity to his own views (see Acts 15:1-41). The doctrine of this epistle is that the Jew had no such privilege, and in regard to Salvation he was on the same level with the Gentile. He stands or falls to his own master; and only his master has the right to judge him, not you; your meddling in this business is both rash and unloving. (See I Cor. 4:3-5).

           JUDGEST:  (Grk.–krinô)–It is not for us to sit in judgment on the servant of    another man. The verb judgeconnects this with the “judgment” passed by the “eater of herbs” upon the Christianity of his “stronger” brother.

Only his master has that right over him; and if he chooses to forbid his doing anything, or to allow him to do anything, it  is his concern, not ours. To attempt to control him is to meddle into something to which we have no right, and to become a “busy-body” in other men's matters,  “But let none of you suffer…as a busy body in other men’s matters”  (I Pet. 4:15. Thus Christians are the servants of God; they are answerable to him; and we have no right to usurp his place, and to act as if we were “lords over his heritage,” (I Pet. 5:3).  The scripture forbids us to judge one another as having no grace, for the doing or not doing of those things which are consistent with a present state of grace.

             SERVANT:  (Grk.–oiketên)—literally:  “household servant”. He is a servant in the household of Christ’s.  Hence, “not another man’s,” as the KJV words it, but the servant “of another”.

            Why we should not rashly censure or judge our brother differing in judgment from us about lesser things is because he is God's servant; and it is God's sentence and not ours, for which he must stand or fall by. And if these differences shall not hinder God's acceptance of him to salvation, why should they hinder us in accepting of him into our communion?  To love, is our duty: to judge, is God's prerogative: Let us be more in charity, and less in censure.
            The servant is responsible only to his master.  So it is with the Christian in regard to God. He shall be approved or condemned by God.  If his conduct is such as pleases his Master, he shall be approved; if not, he will be condemned. His Master is to judge him, not you.  Your meddling in this business is both rash and unloving.
  Many a local church as been torn apart because those who hold broader views are contemptuous of those who they regard as die-hard conservatives, or because those who are stricter in their outlook are contemptuous of those who claim the right to do things which they (the conservatives) think are wrong.  It is not for us to condemn each other.

“To his own master he standeth or falleth
Literally:  “to his own master he stands or falls”–Standing and falling is either explained of standing firm and of being condemned in the divine judgment; or, as in I Cor. 10:12—“Wherefore let him that thinketh he standeth take heed lest he fall.”

He will be approved or condemned,  not according to the correctness of his views about the ceremonial law, or outward forms and ceremonies, but according to his character as a friend or enemy of Christ.

MASTER:  (Grk.–kurioi)—To Christ Jesus.  The true reading here is “the Lord”—i.e., Christ

“Yea, he shall be holden up”
Literally:  “He will stand.”–This is spoken only of the Christian.

         In relation to the servant, he might stand or fall; he might be approved or condemned. The master had no power to keep him in a way of obedience, except by the hope of reward, or the fear of punishment.  But it is not so in regard to the Christian. The Jew, who was disposed to condemn the Gentile, might say that he admitted the general principle which Paul had stated about the servant; that he might fall, and be condemned.  
no, says Paul, this does not follow in relation to the Christian. He shall not fall.  Godhas power to make him stand, to hold him, to keep him from error and from condemnation, and he shall be held up. Sustained as a Christian and accepted; for God is able, and He has promised to do it.
        What Paul is saying is, “What right have you to judge another man’s servant?”  What right have you, Christian friend, to sit in
judgment on another Christian’s conduct when it involves something that is questionable?  Are you God?  Is that person accountable to you?  NO!  He is account to God, and only to God  He is going to stand before God and be judged, as you will.

A second difference of opinion is now cited.

“One man esteemeth one day above another:  another esteemeth every day alike.  Let every man be fully persuaded in his own mind.”
Paul now changes his theme from the food problem to the day problem.

 “One man esteemeth one day above another”
Literally:  “One indeed judges a day above {another} day.”–Some,
Jewish converts or Gentiles who had been proselytes to Judaism and did not understand that the old covenant was ended, and still believed that the Jewish Sabbaths and new moons should be kept sacred.

“Ye observe days, and months, and times, and years”  (Gal. 4:10).
“Let no man therefore judge you in meat, or in drink, or in respect of an holyday, or of the new moon, or of the sabbath days”  (Col. 2:16).

Many of the believing Jews could not be taken off from solemnizing those feasts which were of God's own founding and instituting among them. One group looked upon them truly as nullified by Christ.  Now Paul advises that neither one side nor the other; neither he that regards, nor he that does not regard those days, should be judged for so doing because he is acting according to the dictates of his conscience. He that, according to his light, does either eat or not eat such meats or keeps or does not keep such days, thinks  it as an act of obedience to God'; praying for, and giving thanks unto Almighty God for his acceptance or rejection. So then, if they both aim at the same end–the glory of God'–they ought not to condemn one another for each other's act.

           ESTEEMETH:  (Grk.–krinei)–literally: “judges.” The word that is usually rendered as, “judges,”  is here translated as “esteem” (comp. Acts 13:46;       16:15).

This Greek word originally has the idea of separating, and then discerning, or in the act of judging. The expression means that one would set a higher value on one day than on another, or would regard it as more sacred than others. This was the case with the Jews who regarded the days of their festivals, and fasts, and Sabbaths as peculiarly sacred, and still held to  their former views, even after they had become converted to Christianity.

          DAY:  (Grk.–hemeran)–Perhaps the Greek word here rendered as “day,” really should be taken for time, festival, and such like, in which sense it is frequently used.

Reference is made here to the Jewish institutions, and especially their festivals; such as the Passover, Pentecost, Feast of Tabernacles, New Moons, Jubilee, etc.  The converted Jew still thought these of moral obligation; the Gentile Christian not having been bred up in this way had no such prejudices.  And as those who were the instruments of bringing him to the knowledge of God gave him no such injunctions, consequently he paid to these no religious regard.

“another esteemeth every day alike.”
Literally:  “And  {another}one judges every day {alike}.” The second case is about the observation of days.

            Many of the believing Jews could not be taken off from solemnizing those feasts which were of God's own founding and instituting among the Jews. Another looked upon them truly as abrogated by Christ.  Now Paul advises that neither the one nor the other, that is, neither he that regards nor he that does not regard those days, should be judged, or hardly censured for so doing, because he is acting to the direction of his conscience.
            He that, according to his light, will either eat or not eat such meats,
keep or not keep such days, intends as an act of obedience to God; praying for, and giving thanks unto Almighty God for his acceptance. So then, if they both aim at the same end, they ought not to condemn one another for each other's act.

           ANOTHER: (Grk.–hos)–Literally: “One.”  The converted Gentile esteemed (judged) every day, that is, considers that all time is the Lord's, and that each day should be devoted to the glory of God; and that those festivals are not binding on him.

The Gentile Christian, not having been brought up amidst the Jewish customs, and not having absorbed their opinions and prejudices, would not regard these days as having any special sacredness. The appointment of those days had a special reference to the Jews. They were designed to keep them as a separate people, and to prepare the nation for the reality, of which their rites were but the shadow. When the Messiah came, the Passover, the Feast of Tabernacles, and the other peculiar festivals of the Jews, of course vanished; and it is perfectly clear that Paul  never intended to impose  their observance on the Gentile converts. This subject is discussed in the second chapter of the Epistle to the Galatians.

         EVERY DAY ALIKE: (Grk.–pasan hemeran)–Literally:  “Judges every day;   subjects every day to moral scrutiny.”  The word “alike" is not in the original Greek text and its insertion by the English translators really tends to change Paul’s meaning. The passage means that he regards every day as consecrated to      the Lord (v. 6).

The question has been asked as to whether Paul intends in this to include the Christian Sabbath. Does he mean to say that it is a matter of indifference whether this day be observed, or whether it be devoted to ordinary business or amusements? This is a very important question in regard to the Lord's Day.  That Paul did not mean to say that it was a matter of indifference whether it should be kept as holy, or devoted to business or amusement, is plain from the following considerations:

1.      The discussion had reference only to the peculiar customs of the Jews, to the rites and practices which they would attempt to impose on the Gentiles, and not to any questions which might arise among Christians.
The inquiry pertained to meats, and festival observances among the Jews, and to their scruplesabout partaking of the food offered to idols, etc.; and there is no more propriety in supposing thatthe subject of the Lord's day is introduced here than that he advances principles respecting baptism and the Lord's Supper.
2.       The Lord's day was doubtless observed by all Christians, whether converted from Jews or Gentiles (see I Cor. 16:2; Acts 20:7 Rev. 1:10).  The propriety of observing that day does not appear to have been a matter of controversy. The only inquiry was, whether it was proper to add to that the observance of the Jewish Sabbaths, and days of festivals and fasts.
3.        It is expressly said, that those who did not regard the day regarded it as not to
God or to honor God (4:6).

          They did it as a matter of respect to Him and His institutions, to promote His glory, and to advance His work. Was this ever done by those who disregard the Christian Sabbath? Is their design ever to promote His honor, and to advance in the knowledge of Him, by neglecting His holy day? Who does not know that the Christian Sabbath has never been neglected or profaned by any design to glorify the Lord Jesus.
          That the Sabbath is of lasting obligation may be reasonably concluded from its institution and from its typical reference.  All types are intended to continue in full force till the antitype, or thing signified by the type,  take place; consequently, the Sabbath will continue in force till the consummation of all things.  The word alike” should not be added; nor is it acknowledged by any MS. or ancient version. 

“Let every man be fully persuaded in his own mind”
Literally:  “Let each one be fully assured in {his} own mind.”–With respect to the propriety or non-propriety of keeping the above festivals, let every man act from the  conviction of his own mind; there is a sufficient latitude allowed: all may be fully satisfied.

That is, subjects of this kind are not to be pressed as matters of conscience. Every man is to examine them for himself, and act accordingly. This direction pertains to the subject under discussion, and not to any other.

            FULLY PERSUADED: (Grk.–plêrophoreô)—Literally:  “to be fully convinced or assured;” or “assured.”   This Greek word denotes the highest conviction–not a matter of opinion or prejudice, but a matter on which the mind is made up by examination.

           This is the general principle on which Christians are called to act in relation to festival days and fasts in the church.  If some Christians deem them to be for edification, and suppose that their piety will be promoted by observing the days which commemorate the birth, and death, and temptations of the Lord Jesus, they are not to be reproached or opposed in their celebration. Nor are they to attempt to impose them on others as a matter of conscience, or to reproach others because they do not observe them.
          A believer should do only those things to which he can give himself fully and without reservation.  Whatever you do for God, you should do with enthusiasm.  It is disgraceful the way some people go to church on Sunday.  Can you imagine them going to a football game when the alma mater is playing with the same lackluster attitude they have when they attend church? One of the big reasons why churches are so bogged down is because of the lack of enthusiasm even from the pastors.

“in his own mind.”
Literally:  “Each in his own mind.” —Let each act as he thinks  is right.

VERSE 6:  “He that regardeth the day, regardeth it unto the Lord; and he that regardeth not the day, to the Lord he doeth not regard it.  He that eateth, eateth to the Lord, for he giveth God thanks; and he that eateth not, to the Lord he eateth not, and giveth God thanks.”

“He that regardeth the day regardeth it unto the Lord”
Literally:  “The {one} minding the day, he minds {it} to {the} Lord.”–It is regarded unto the Lord if he keeps it, because he thinks it is the Lord's will

 If another refuses to keep it, because he believes it is the Lord's will that he should not, his non-keeping is to the Lord.  Do not condemn the man for what is indifferent in itself: if he keep these festivals, his purpose is to honor God by the religious observance of them.

          HE THAT REGARDETH: (Grk.–ho phronôn)—Literally: “His minding.”   This Greek word rendered as “regard” literally means, “to mind; to think.”  Thus, this phrase would better read, “he who thinks about the day.”

           THE DAY: (Grk.–tên hêmeran)–Any of the days under discussion; the days that the Jews kept as religious occasions. Most likely this may refer to the difference the Jew had in worshiping (Sabbath—Saturday).

“regardeth it unto the Lord”
Literally:  To the Lord he minds it.”–Regards it as holy, or as set apart to the service of
God.   He believes that he is required by God to keep it, i.e., that the Laws of Moses in regard to such days are binding on him.  Both groups (Jew and Gentile) were observing their holy day/worship day to glorify God.

“He that regardeth not the day, to the Lord he does not regard it.”
Literally:  “The {one} not minding the day, he does not mind {it} to {the} Lord.”  

 “that regardeth no the day”
Literally:  “Not minding the day.”–Or who does not observe such distinctions of days as are demanded in the laws of Moses.

    “to the Lord he does not regard it”
    Literally: “He does not mind it to the Lord.”–That is, he does not believe that God requires such an observance.

“He that eateth meat, eateth it for the Lord, for he giveth God thanks”
 Literally:  “The {one} eating, he eats to {the}  Lord, for he give thanks to God.”

HE THAT EATETH:  (Grk.–ho esthion)–He who obeys what he regards the Lord's will in this, either eating or abstaining, does it with reference to the Lord; i.e., the Gentile Christian, who freely eats all kinds of meat (v. 2).

EATETH TO THE LORD: (Grk.–Kurioi esthiei)–Because he believes that God does not forbid it; and because he desires, in doing it, to glorify God

To eat to the Lord, in this case, is to do it believing that such is His will. In all other cases, it is to do it feeling that we receive our food from Him; rendering thanks for His goodness, and desirous of being strengthened that we may do His commands.

 “he giveth God thanks”
Literally:  “For he gives God thanks”–This is an incidental proof that it is our duty to give
God thanks at our meals for our food. It shows that it was the practice of the early Christians, and has the commendation of Paul.   It was also uniformly done by the Jews, and by the Lord Jesus (Matt. 14:19; 26:26; Mark 6:41; 14:22; Luke 9:16; 24:30).

The Christian who regards days and meats according to Jewish ceremonies, and the Christian who does not, are both acting from religious motives, and for the purpose of honoring God. This they show by thanking him for his mercies. They should therefore be received and treated by each other as friends ofGod.  No man should do what he does not believe to be right; and the great object of every man in what he does, and in what he forbears to do, should be to honor God and benefit his fellow-men.

“He that eateth not, to the Lord he eateth not, and giveth God thanks.”
Literally:  “The {one} not eating, he does not eat to {the} Lord, and gives thanks to God.”

           He abstains from eating because he believes that God requires him to do it, and with a desire to obey and honor Him. The Jew thanked God for the Law, and for the favor He had bestowed on him in giving him more light than He had the Gentiles. For this privilege they valued themselves highly, and this feeling, no doubt, the converted Jews would continue to retain; deeming themselves as specially favored in having a peculiar acquaintance with the law of God.
           The one gave thanks to Godfor the flesh which the other had scruples for not doing so; the other did the same for the herbs to which, for conscience' sake, he restricted himself. From this passage about the observance of days, such language could not have been used if the Sabbath law had been in force under the Gospel in any form. Certainly it could not, if the Sabbath were merely one of the Jewish festival days; but it will not do to take this for granted merely because it was observed under the Mosaic economy. And certainly, if the Sabbath was more ancient than Judaism; if, even under Judaism, it was enshrined among the eternal sanctities of the Decalogue, uttered, as no other parts of Judaism were, amidst the terrors of Sinai; and if the Lawgiver Himself said of it when on earth, “The Son of man is LORD EVEN OF THE SABBATH DAY” (see Mark 2:28).
           Do not condemn the man for what is indifferent in itself: if he keep these festivals, his purpose is to
honor God by the religious observance of them.  On the other hand, he who finds that he cannot observe them in honor of God, not believing that God has commanded them, he does not observe them at all.  In like manner, he that eats any creature of God, which is wholesome and proper food, gives thanks to God as the author of all good.  And he who cannot eat of all indiscriminately, but is regulated by the precepts in the Mosaic Law relative to clean and unclean meats, also gives God thanks.  Both are sincere; both upright; both act according to their light; God accepts both; and they should bear with each other.