GOD’S RIGHTEOUSNESS AND MERCY
In Chapter 9 Paul begins a thesis that will continue on through Chapter 11. He turns from his exposition on Grace and begins to deal with God’s present dealing with Israel. He presents the problem of how to reconcile the distinction between Jew and Greek with which he has been dealing. Chapters 1-8 were doctrinal, and emphasizes faith; Chapters 9-11 are dispensational and emphasizes hope; while Chapters 12-16 deals with duty and emphasizes love.
Chapter 9-11 is a very important section of the Bible. It does not deal so much with Christian doctrine, as it does with the eshatology; that is, with prophecy that reveals that God is not through with Israel.
1. Chapter 9 deals with God’s past dealings with Israel.
2. Chapter 10 deals with His present dealing with Israel, and,
3. Chapter 11 deals with God’s future dealing with Israel as a nation.
In chapter 9 Paul opens a new train of thought and argumentation. His main purpose seems to meet objections which would be alleged against the positions he has previously stated and defended in the previous parts of the epistle. Previously Paul had defended the position that:
1. The barrier between the Jews and Gentiles had been removed;
2. The Jews could not be saved by any external advantages which they possessed; that all were alike guilty before God; and,
3. There was but one way for Jews and Gentiles of salvation–by faith in Jesus Christ, (chapters 1-3).
Paul had stated the benefits of this plan, (chapter 5), and showed its bearing in accomplishing what the law of Moses could not effect in overcoming sin (chapter 6-7). In chapter 8 Paul had stated also on what principles this was done; that it was according to the purpose of God–the principle of electing mercy applied indiscriminately to the mass of guilty Jews and Gentiles.
In this, and the two following chapters, Paul considers the reception of the Gentiles. into the kingdom and covenant of God under the notion of calling or invitation, and of election or choice: which shows that he views the two parties in a light different to that in which he had before placed them. Paul considers the Gentiles, as being invited into the kingdom of God, and as chosen to be His people; and the Jews as being left out and rejected. Because the main body of the Jews had now rejected the Gospel of Christ, Paul saw that God was about to set them aside, overturn their polity, destroy their temple, and disperse them over the face of the earth. Thus he knew they would be accursed, or anathematized from Christ, and reduced to a level with the heathen nations
Paul expresses his great sorrow for the unbelief and obstinacy of the Jews.
Whose high privileges he enumerates.
Points out the manner in which God has chosen to communicate the knowledge of his name to both Jews and Gentiles; and how he deals, whether in judgment or mercy, with individuals; and produces the cases of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob, Esau, and Pharaoh.
God shows mercy and judgment as he thinks proper, and none have a right to find fault with his proceedings.
God has the same power over the human race as the potter has over the clay, predicted the calling of the Gentiles, and the rejection of the Jews.
The prophets predicted the calling of the Gentiles, and the rejection of the Jews.
The Gentiles have attained to the knowledge of God's method of saving sinners; while the Jews have not attained this knowledge.
The reason why the Jews have not attained the salvation provided for them in the Gospel.
VERSES 9:1-11:36–UNBELIEF OF MEN vs GOD’S GRACE
VERSES 1-5: PROBLEM OF ISRAEL’S UNBELIEF DEFINED