“Even the righteousness of God which is by faith of Jesus Christ unto all and upon all them that believe:  for there is no difference”

“the righteousness of God”
Literally:  “A righteousness and of God.”  That is, the manner of becoming righteous which God hath appointed. at which he has provided in and by His Son Jesus Christ, and    which He freely gives to sinners upon condition of faith in Christ. Righteousness without the Law; righteousness that justifies men not on the ground that they have   rendered to the law the obedience which it requires, but through faith in Christ. 

         Having stated that the design of the gospel was to reveal a new plan of becoming just in the sight of God, Paul now proceeds to more fully explain it. The explanation which he offers makes it plain that the phrase so often used by him, “righteousness of God,” does not refer to an attribute of God, but rather to His plan of making men righteous.
         It must be noted that this faith will in turn produce true obedience to God's law.  Righteousness being witnessed; having been referred to, foretold, and described in the O.T..  The way of salvation revealed in the O.T. was the same which is revealed in the New. The revelation was not so clear and full, and it was addressed more to the outward senses: but in both, the salvation revealed is of grace, not of debt; obtained not by works, but by faith; and given not on account of human merits, but the merits of Christ.           
         God's method of saving sinners is now shown, by the Gospel, to be through His own mere mercy, by Christ Jesus; without the law-without any right or claim which might result from obedience to the law; and is evidently that which was intended by God from the beginning; for it is witnessed by the law and the prophets-the rites and ceremonies of the one, and the preaching and predictions of the others, all bearing testimony to the great design of God, and to the absolute necessity there was for the sacrifice and salvation which God has provided.  It is God setting the believing sinner in the very standing in which Christ is, with Him!  If it were man’s righteousness it would be through something the man accomplished.  But it is God’s righteousness; apart from ANY right-doing on man’s part.

         “by faith of Jesus Christ”
         Literally:  “Through faith of Jesus Christ.”  That is, by faith in Jesus Christ. The expression “Have the faith of God,” (Mark 11:22), means, have faith in God.

So Acts 3:16, the “faith of His Name,” literally means,  faith in His Name. In Gal. 2:20, the “faith of the Son of God” means, faith in the Son of God. This cannot mean that faith is the meritorious cause of salvation, but that it is the instrument or means by which we become justified. 

          FAITH:  (Grk.–pisteōs)–Meaning: “to have faith in; to believe in; have confidence in.”  This means the phrase should read, “by faith in Jesus Christ instead of, “by faith of Christ” as the KJV word it.  

On the nature of faith,  God has promised that they who believe in Christ shah be pardoned and saved. This is His plan in distinction from the plan of those who seek to be justified by their good works. The benefits of whose obedience and death are obtained not by human works or merit, but by receiving him as a Savior, and trusting in Him for salvation. No difference; between Jews and Gentiles, as to the way of salvation. That is, by faith in Jesus Christ.

          “Unto all and upon all that believe” 
         Literally:  “To all and upon all the {ones} believing.”    It is evident that these expressions are designed to be emphatic, but why both are used is not really apparent.

         BELIEVE:  (Grk.–pisteuontas)–Literally: “believing.”  This present tense of the verb for “believe” suggests a continuous reliance on Christ rather than a momentary acceptance of His work on our behalf.

Many have supposed that there was no essential difference in the meaning, But the Holy Spirit would not have put these as being separate points if there was no difference.  If there is any difference, then:

          UNTO ALL:  (Grk.–eis penta)–This may denote that this plan of justification has  come unto all men, to Jews and Gentiles; that it has been provided for them and offered to them without distinction. 

           UPON ALL:   (Grk.–epi penta)–This may be to guard against the idea that all would be benefited by it, or that all would be saved because the announcement had come to all.  However, these words  (epi penta), are missing from most manuscripts and should be dis-  regardedThe repetition of “all” (pantas), and the change of accompanying prepositions, are  designed to impress on the reader the universality of the grace of the gospel.

Paul adds that the benefits of this plan must actually come upon all, or must be applied to all, if they would be justified. They could not be justified merely by the fact that the plan was provided, and that the knowledge of it had come to all, but by their actually coming under this plan, and availing themselves of it. Perhaps there is reference in the last expression, “upon all,” to a robe, or garment, that is placed upon one to hide his nakedness, or sin (comp. Isa. 64:6, also Phil. 3:9). There is justification for every sincere believer, whether Jew or Gentile, for there is no difference between them, but not for the unbelieving impenitent.   

                  BELIEVE:   (Grk.–pisteuontas)–Literally:  “believing.”

For there is no difference”– That is, there is no difference in regard to the matter under     discussion. Good and evil are the same in essence, whatever be their intensity and whatever be their magnitude. Arsenic is arsenic, whether you have a ton of it or a grain; and a very small dose will be enough to poison; likewise, sin is sin, no matter how we may attempt to cover it or downplay it, or to justify it. The Gospel starts with the assertion that there is no difference in the fact of sin and this assertion is abundantly confirmed.

DIFFERENCE:  (Grk.–diastolē)–Literally meaning, “to send two ways;” thus; “to draw  asunder; divide; distinguish.”  The idea is, “there is no distinction. “

         Paul does not mean to say that there is no difference in regard to the talents, dispositions, education, and property of men; but there is no distinction in regard to the way in which they must be justified. All must be saved, (if saved at all), in the same way, whether Jews or Gentiles, bond or free, rich or poor, learned or ignorant. None can be saved by works; therefore  ALL are dependent on the mercy of God in Jesus Christ.

         Back in Mideival Times, the way in which they cleaned the hall of a castle, the floor of which might be covered with remnants of food and all manner of abominations, was to strew another layer of rushes over the top of the filth, and then they thought themselves quite neat and respectable. And that is what a great many people do with the sin in their lives.   They attempt to cover up the filth with a sweet smelling layer of conventional proprieties; by doing such things as  joining a church or giving to a church or charities; and then they think themselves clean before God.  But, there is “not a just man upon earth that doeth good and sinneth not.”

“For all have sinned, and come short of the glory of God”

This has been already shown. This was the point which Paul had established in the discussion in these first three chapters.   Sinned in Adam, and in their own persons; by a sinful nature, sinful tempers, and sinful actions.

“For all have sinned”
Literally:   “For all sinned.”–This presents a panoramic view of the human race as doing nothing    except committing sin.  Consequently, all are equally helpless and guilty before God; and since God is no respecter of persons and all human creatures being equally Adam’s offspring, there is therefore no reason why one should be preferred before another,  As a result, His endless mercy has embraced ALL.

Such    erroneous way of thinking has given rise to the equally erroneous way of thinking that “we are all God’s children.”   The only way anyone can be one of God’s children is to be “born-again” into God’s family. 

            HAVE SINNED(Grk.–hēmarton)–This particular word for “sin” mean, “to miss the mark; therefore, “to fail in obeying the Law.”  The aorist tense used here for the word for “sin”  points to an event in the past; that is, the historic occurrence of sin.

come short of the glory of God”– These words have been variously translated:  “failed of attaining the glory of God: Have not been able to bring glory to God: Stand in need of the glory,” that is, the mercy of God.

“and come short” The original Greek literally says, “Are deficient in regard to; are wanting,” etc.  Here it means, that “they had failed to obtain,” or “were destitute of…”

           COME SHORT(Grk.–hysterountai)-This is the present tense of the Greek verb hystereō, which means, “to be left behind in the race and so fail to reach the goal; to  fall short of the end; to lack.”  And being in the present tense, this says, “is right now short.”

Notice that “all sinned” is in the past tense while “come short” is in the present tense.  God is looking back to the original occurrence of sin (with Adam–past-aorist tense) and forward to each person alive today (present tense).

“of the glory of God” — They had sought to be justified, or approved, by God; but they had all failed in their efforts.  Their works of the Law had not secured this approval; and    therefore they were under condemnation.

          GLORY: (Grk.–doxa)–This word is often used in the sense of praise, or approval or acceptance (John 5:41,44; 7:18; 8:50; 12:40). The dominant meaning of this word doxa in classical Greek are, “notion; opinion, conjecture, repute.”  In Biblical use it means, “recognition; honor;”  (Phil. 1:11; I Pet. 1;7). 

The simple meaning seems to be this: that all have sinned, and none can enjoy God's glory but they that are holy; consequently both Jews and Gentiles have failed in their endeavors to attain it, as, by the works of any law, no human being can be justified.  The sense of this phrase is that they are short of the honor or approval which only God can give.  Unbelievers, or legalists, do not approve themselves before God by the righteousness which is of the law.  They come short of the approval which is given only to those who are Justified by Faith.

“Being justified freely by His grace through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus”

            “Being justified freely”
            Literally:  “Having been justified freely.”–Meaning,
pardoned and accepted.

           JUSTIFIED(Grk.–didikaioumenoi)—Justification is a declarative act of God’s whereby He declares the sinner to be free of sin and righteous.  The fact   that men are  justified in this extraordinary manner shows that they have sinned.

          This declaration is based upon the sinner, by faith, receiving Christ as his own personal Savior and his sins being washed away by the precious blood of Christ. All who believe upon Jesus Christ have their sins thus blotted out, being freely, as a divine gift, justified (that is, counted as just, or sinless) by grace. To be  justified means being treated as if righteous; that is, being regarded and treated as if they had kept the Law. Paul has shown that they could not be so regarded and treated by any merit of their own, or by personal obedience to the law.
          Paul now affirms that if they were so treated, it must be by mere
(unmerited) and as a matter not of right, but of gift.  This is the essence of the gospel. And to show this, and the way in which it is done, is the main design of this epistle. The expression here is be understood as referring to all who are justified (3:22). The righteousness of God, by faith in Jesus Christ, is “upon all who believe,” who are all “justified freely by his grace.”

           FREELY:   (Grk.–dorean)—freely; undeserved, to that which is purchased, or which is obtained by labor, or that which is a matter of claim. I nstead, it  is a free, undeserved gift,  not merited by our obedience to any law, and not that to which we have any claim. Paul uses the word here in reference to those who are justified. To them it is an undeserved gift.

However, it does not mean that it has been obtained, however, without any price or merit from any one, for the Lord Jesus has purchased it with His own blood, and to Him it becomes a matter of justice that those who were given to Him should be justified (I Cor. 6:20; 7:23; II Pet.  2:1; I Pet. 2:9, (Greek.) Acts 20:28; Isa. 53:11). We have no offering to bring for it, and no claim to it.  Therefore, to us it is entirely a matter of being a gift. 

            “by His grace”–Without any merit of our own; without anything done on our part to deserve this justification. o far from being able to attain the glory of God by their          obedience, they are all guilty: and, to be saved, must be freely pardoned by God's grace. 

          GRACE:  (Grk.–chariti)—This is the way that God saves us (Eph. 2:8-9).  This is the fountain from which flows down the living waters.  Because of what God has done (sending His Son to die) God is able to save by grace. By His free love.  Salvation is wholly of GRACE not of debt, that men are saved.  There are no strings attached to GRACE  It is given dorean; that is,  freely.

“through the redemption”–The word used here for redemption occurs but ten times in the N.T. , (3:24;   8:23; Luke 21:28; I Cor. 1:30 Eph. 1:7; 4:30; Col. 1:14; Heb.9:15; 11:35).

         REDEMPTION(Grk.–apolutrōseōs)—Its Greek root word, (lutron)–denotes the price which is paid for a prisoner of war; the ransom, or stipulated purchase-money, which      after being paid, the captive is set free.

The word here used is then employed to denote liberation from bondage, captivity, or evil of any kind, usually keeping up the idea of a price, or a ransom paid, in consequence of which the delivery is affected. The word here denotes that deliverance from sin, and from the evil consequences of sin, which has been brought about by the offering of Jesus Christ as a propitiation (3:25), rather, satisfaction..  In the NT there are three words that explain the act of redeeming:
1.    Agorazō —Meaning, “to buy at the marketplace” (see I Cor. 6:20).
2.     Exagorazō–Meaning, “to buy out of the marketplace”
It has the thought of buying something for one’s own use.  It means to take goods out of the    market place and never to sell them again, but rather to keep them for one’s own use (see Gal. 3:13).
3.   ApolutrosisMeaning, “to liberate by the payment of a ransom n order to set a person   free.”  

Apolutrosis means not only to go into the marketplace and put down cash on the barrelhead, and not only to take the purchase out of the market for one’s own private us, never to sell it to anyone else; but it also means to set free or to liberate after paying the purchase price. This bears with it the application of buying a slave out of slavery in order to set him free, and this is the word for redemption that we have here in this verse 7.   In Roman times there was a group of charitable women who would go down to the slave markets and buy out slaves for the sole purpose of setting them free.

“that is in Christ Jesus”
Literally:  “in Christ Jesus.”– The price Christ has paid.

That is, “the payment of a ransom” in Christ's death. That this is the sense of the word “redemption.”  When applied to Christ's death, it will appear clear to any impartial student of the passages where it occurs. Christ redeems the sinner who puts his trust in Him.  His blood pays the debt that the sinner owes to justice. Since Christ, the sinless One, has suffered for sin, God will accept His suffering for the debt of those who love and trust in Him. It is John 3:16 in action.